a. OGD (oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy): oesophagitis, gastritis, ulcer, polyps or tumour may be identified and biopsy taken.
b. Ultrasound of the abdomen: gallbladder stones, cysts or tumours in liver or kidney, obstructed bile ducts or mass in pancreatic head.
c. CT scan of the abdomen & pelvis: tumours or in solid organs eg. pancreas, lymphadenopathy, occult infections or lesions in spine.
d. Manometry & pH studies: reflux and retention of acid in lower oesophagus, and peristalsis and tonic contractions of oesophagus.
e. Barium meal: ulcers, polyps or tumours. This may be offered as an alternative to OGD, but it is not possible to perform biopsy nor test for Helicobacter pylori infection. Subtle changes including early gastric cancer may be missed.
f. Colonoscopy: polyps, tumours or diverticular disease.