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Bladder Cancer Surgery

Bladder Cancer Surgery: Overview | Singapore General Hospital

Bladder Cancer Surgery - How to prevent?

Bladder Cancer Surgery - Diagnosis

Bladder cancer can be diagnosed through the following clinical findings, laboratory and radiological tests :

  • Physical exam. The doctor feels the abdomen and pelvis for tumours and it may include a rectal or vaginal exam.
  • Urine tests. The laboratory checks the urine for blood, cancer cells and other signs of disease.
  • Ultrasound scan. This is a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to create images of organs and structures inside your body. It may be used to diagnose a bladder cancer.
  • CT urogram or intravenous urogram (IVU). For patients with blood in the urine to visualise the whole urinary tract from the kidney to the bladder. A series of x-ray or CT scan images are taken after dye is injected and secreted by the urinary tract.
  • Cystoscopy. A small tube, called a cystoscope, is passed through the opening of the urethra in the penis. It contains a lens and a light system that helps the doctor see the inside of the bladder lining to identify any tumours causing the bleeding. Tissue samples can be obtained from the bladder and sent to test for cancer cells.

Bladder cancer may be divided into :

  • Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), where the tumours are confi ned to the lining of the bladder, and
  • Muscle invasive bladder cancer, where the tumours have invaded into or beyond the muscular wall of the bladder.

The long-term outcome of bladder cancer depends on :

  • Stage of the cancer, whether it is muscle-invasive or not
  • Aggressiveness of the cancer under the microscope (grade)
  • Bladder cancer cell type
  • Patient’s age and general health

Bladder Cancer Surgery - Preparing for surgery

Bladder Cancer Surgery - Post-surgery care

Bladder Cancer Surgery - Other Information

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