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Patent Foramen Ovale

Patent Foramen Ovale - How to prevent?

Patent Foramen Ovale - Diagnosis

PFO can be diagnosed through an echocardiogram (ultrasound imaging test of the heart). Sometimes, a “bubble test” may be required during an echocardiogram to confirm the presence of a PFO.

Some studies suggest that PFO may be present in as high as 27% of the population. It is diagnosed on transthoracic and transoesphageal echocardiography with demonstrable significant right to left shunting (evidence for blood going from right to left chambers).

Patent Foramen Ovale - Preparing for surgery

Patent Foramen Ovale - Post-surgery care

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