The relative rarity of primary malignant MS tumours may give rise to difficulties in their recognition and in distinguishing them from benign ones.
Most of these cases need careful clinical and radiological evaluation.
Examples of radiological evaluation are : good quality plain radiography ( X-rays ) computer-aided tomography , CAT scans, radionuclide bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These tests may be required in locating these tumours . If there is a suspicion of malignancy, then chest X ray and CAT scan of the chest are essential.
Usually a tissue biopsy would be required to comfirm the diagnosis of MS tumours.
The biopsy may be carried via an open biopsy which requires an operative procedure, or a needle biopsy, which is a minimally invasive procedure.
In either procedure, adequate tissues are sent for examination under a microscope , as well as for culture ( bacteriological analysis).
The results of radiological evaluation and histological examination allows the extent of the tumour to be determined, and the type of tumour, established.
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