When a patient develops end-stage kidney failure, minerals, fluids and toxins will build up to harmful levels. Some symptoms of kidney failure are:
These symptoms are often non-specific, which means they can be caused by other illness or conditions. Further urine, blood tests and assessments are required to confirm diagnosis of kidney failure.
Once diagnosed with end-stage kidney failure, the patient will either require dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive. Dialysis can remove enough toxins and excess fluids from the patient but not all and the patient will still require medication. In the long term, the patient on dialysis can develop further complications, such as cardiovascular disease, due to the incomplete removal of toxins and fluids.