The main clinical sign is abnormal vaginal bleeding (e.g. post menopausal bleeding, irregular menstrual bleeding, menorrhagia) or vaginal discharge and occasionally pelvic pain.
Ultrasound of the pelvis is useful to demonstrate whether there is any abnormality (e.g. thickening) of the endometrium. However, to diagnose endometrial cancer, an endometrial biopsy is necessary. This can be achieved via outpatient aspiration of endometrial contents (e.g. pipelle or Explora endometrial sampling devices) or as a minor day surgical procedure called dilatation and curettage with hysteroscopy. Specimens of the endometrial biopsy are sent for microscopic analysis.
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