Endometriosis is a painful condition where the tissue that normally lines your uterus grows outside the uterine cavity. This abnormal growth results in chronic inflammation and complications such as adhesions, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Endometriotic implants most commonly involve pelvic structures such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes and peritoneum, but can also spread to the intestines, urinary tract and structures outside the pelvic cavity.
The main risk factor is a positive family history (having a family member affected by endometriosis).
Your doctor will speak to you about the symptoms that you experience and also do a physical examination. This typically includes a pelvic exam to look for the presence of endometriotic cysts and/or evidence of scar tissue. An advanced ultrasound scan and/or MRI imaging may be ordered. In some cases, your doctor may recommend a diagnostic laparoscopy, which will allow direct visual inspection and biopsy of suspicious areas.