Hospital acquired infections are infections that are acquired in the hospital setting, usually occurring 48 hours after admission to the healthcare facility. They can be caused by viral, bacteria and/or fungal pathogens. Such infections can be transmitted through contact, droplet or airborne transmission, or through contaminated items such as medications, devices or equipment. Examples of hospital acquired infections include pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, surgical wound infection, device related infections and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea. Some of these infections are associated with drug resistant organisms which are hard to treat.