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Additional Health Assessment: Based on the Type of Disease

List of “Individual Decision” assessment tests grouped according to the Type of Disease:

a) Cancer
b) Heart and Vascular Diseases
c) Infectious Diseases
d) Metabolic, Nutritional, Endocrine and Rheumatology Conditions
e) Vision and Hearing Disorders

S/N

To assess for 

Who should be assessed? 

Assessment test 

Assessment frequency

Cancer

1

Breast cancer

BRCA carriers, women at high genetic risk for breast cancer

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Breast

Once a year

2

Colorectal cancer

Individuals above 50 yrs not going for screening colonoscopy or Faecal Immunochemical test (FIT)

Computed Tomography (CT) Colonography

Once every 5 years if the initial screening study with CT colonography is negative. Otherwise, as advised by your doctor.

3

Liver cancer/ Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

  • Hepatitis B carrier

  • Individuals with liver cirrhosis

Alpha-FoetoProtein (AFP)

Once a year

Ultrasound HepatobiliarySystem

Once a year

4

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

Individuals with a strong family history of NPC

Nasoscopy

As advised by your doctor.

Tumor marker of NPC

5

Ovarian cancer

BRCA carriers, women at high risk of BRCAmutation

Transvaginal Ultrasound

As advised by your doctor.

6

Prostate cancer

  • Men aged 50-75 yrs

  • Men with a strong family history of prostate cancer

Prostate-Specific Antigen(PSA)

As advised by your doctor.

Heart and Vascular Disease

7

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

Men aged 65 to 75 who have ever smoked

Abdominal Ultrasonography

As advised by your doctor.

8

Cerebral aneurysm

  • Individuals with personal or a strong family history of bleeding from a cerebral aneurysm

  • Individuals with polycystic kidney disease

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) / Magnetic Resonance Angiography(MRA) brain

As advised by your doctor.

9

Coronary heart disease

Individuals with intermediate coronary heart disease risk

Apolipoprotein A

As advised by your doctor.

CT Coronary Calcium Score

Electrocardiography (ECG)

High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs CRP)

Treadmill Stress Test

10

Peripheral vascular disease

  • Individuals with diabetes

  • Individual aged 50-70 yrs and is a smoker or with both hypertension and hyperlipidaemia

Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)

As advised by your doctor.

Infectious Diseases

11

Hepatitis B infection

  • Pregnant women

  • Immigrants from countries where Hepatitis B is common

Hepatitis B screen

 

For pregnant women: Offered at the first prenatal visit.

For other individuals: As advised by your doctor.

12

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

  • Pregnant women

  • Individuals who practise high risk sexual behaviour

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screen

For pregnant women: Offered in the first trimester.

For other individuals: As advised by your doctor.

13

Intestinal parasitic infection

  • Immigrants from countries where disease is common

  • Asymptomatic travellers on prolonged stay in countries where disease is common

Stool for ova, cyst and parasites

As advised by your doctor.

14

Rubella

Pregnant women

Rubella serology

Offered at the first prenatal visit.

15

Syphilis

  • Pregnant women

  • Individuals who practise high risk sexual behaviour

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)

 

For pregnant women: Offered at the first prenatal visit.

As advised by your doctor.

16

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Close contacts of patients with TB

  • Foreigners from countries with high disease prevalence

Chest X-ray (CXR)

As advised by your doctor.

Metabolic, Nutritional, Endocrine and Rheumatology Conditions

17

Anaemia (Iron deficiency anaemia)

  • Pregnant women

  • Non-pregnant women of childbearing age

  • Babies born prematurely or with low birth weight

  • Babies who do not eat food adequate in iron

  • Children who have special health-care needs (e.g. children who use medicines that interfere with iron absorption and those who have chronic disease)

Full Blood Count (FBC)

For pregnant women: Offered at the first prenatal visit.

For non-pregnant
women of child-bearing age: Once before pregnancy.

For babies and children at high risk: Once a year until 5 years old.

18

Diabetic microalbuminuria/ albuminuria/ nephropathy

Individuals with diabetes

Urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio

Once a year

For those with type 1 diabetes, screening should begin 5 years after diagnosis.

Those with type 2 diabetes, screening should begin at diagnosis.

19

Kidney disorder/ dysfunction

Individuals with diabetes,high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease

Smokers aged 50 yrs and above

Individuals with family history of end-stage renal failure

Urine analysis

As advised by your doctor.

 

Kidney function test/Renalpanel

Once a year

20

Osteoporosis

Individuals with high osteoporosisrisk, e.g. high Osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) score

Bone mineral density scan (BMD)

As advised by your doctor.

21

Thyroid disorder

Obese individuals

Individuals with autoimmune disease

Pregnant women with diabetes or adrenal disease 

Thyroid function test (TFT)

As advised by your doctor.

Vision and Hearing Disorders

22

Diabetic retinopathy

Individuals with diabetes

Retinal Fundal Photography

Once a year or more frequently as advised by the doctor.

For those with type 1 diabetes, screening should begin 3 - 5 years after diagnosis.

Those with type 2 diabetes, screening should begin at diagnosis.

23

Hearing loss/Deafness in adults

Individuals exposed to excessive noise

Audiometry

Once a year