List of “Individual Decision” assessment tests grouped according to the Type of Disease:
a) Cancerb) Heart and Vascular Diseasesc) Infectious Diseasesd) Metabolic, Nutritional, Endocrine and Rheumatology Conditionse) Vision and Hearing Disorders
To assess for
Who should be assessed?
BRCA carriers, women at high genetic risk for breast cancer
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Breast
Once a year
Individuals above 50 yrs not going for screening colonoscopy or Faecal Immunochemical test (FIT)
Computed Tomography (CT) Colonography
Once every 5 years if the initial screening study with CT colonography is negative. Otherwise, as advised by your doctor.
Liver cancer/ Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
Hepatitis B carrier
Individuals with liver cirrhosis
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)
Individuals with a strong family history of NPC
As advised by your doctor.
Tumor marker of NPC
BRCA carriers, women at high risk of BRCAmutation
Men aged 50-75 yrs
Men with a strong family history of prostate cancer
Heart and Vascular Disease
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)
Men aged 65 to 75 who have ever smoked
Individuals with personal or a strong family history of bleeding from a cerebral aneurysm
Individuals with polycystic kidney disease
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) / Magnetic Resonance Angiography(MRA) brain
Coronary heart disease
Individuals with intermediate coronary heart disease risk
CT Coronary Calcium Score
High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs CRP)
Treadmill Stress Test
Peripheral vascular disease
Individuals with diabetes
Individual aged 50-70 yrs and is a smoker or with both hypertension and hyperlipidaemia
Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)
Hepatitis B infection
Immigrants from countries where Hepatitis B is common
Hepatitis B screen
For pregnant women: Offered at the first prenatal visit.
For other individuals: As advised by your doctor.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection
Individuals who practise high risk sexual behaviour
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screen
For pregnant women: Offered in the first trimester.
Intestinal parasitic infection
Immigrants from countries where disease is common
Asymptomatic travellers on prolonged stay in countries where disease is common
Stool for ova, cyst and parasites
Offered at the first prenatal visit.
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)
Close contacts of patients with TB
Foreigners from countries with high disease prevalence
Chest X-ray (CXR)
Metabolic, Nutritional, Endocrine and Rheumatology Conditions
Anaemia (Iron deficiency anaemia)
Non-pregnant women of childbearing age
Babies born prematurely or with low birth weight
Babies who do not eat food adequate in iron
Children who have special health-care needs (e.g. children who use medicines that interfere with iron absorption and those who have chronic disease)
Full Blood Count (FBC)
For non-pregnantwomen of child-bearing age: Once before pregnancy.
For babies and children at high risk: Once a year until 5 years old.
Diabetic microalbuminuria/ albuminuria/ nephropathy
Urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio
For those with type 1 diabetes, screening should begin 5 years after diagnosis.
Those with type 2 diabetes, screening should begin at diagnosis.
Kidney disorder/ dysfunction
Individuals with diabetes,high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease
Smokers aged 50 yrs and above
Individuals with family history of end-stage renal failure
Kidney function test/Renalpanel
Individuals with high osteoporosisrisk, e.g. high Osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) score
Bone mineral density scan (BMD)
Individuals with autoimmune disease
Pregnant women with diabetes or adrenal disease
Thyroid function test (TFT)
Vision and Hearing Disorders
Retinal Fundal Photography
Once a year or more frequently as advised by the doctor.
For those with type 1 diabetes, screening should begin 3 - 5 years after diagnosis.
Hearing loss/Deafness in adults
Individuals exposed to excessive noise
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