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Additional Health Assessment: Based on Gender

Health assessment is important to everyone. It enables you to find out if you have a particular disease or condition even if you do not have any symptoms and/or signs of disease. However, there are some assessment tests, which may benefit some people but not others, depending on whether risk factors are present.

List of “Individual Decision” assessment tests grouped according to Gender:

a) For Men

b) For Women (excluding pregnant women)

For Men

S/N

To assess for

Who should be assessed?

Assessment test

Assessment frequency

Cancer

1

Colorectal cancer

Individuals above 50 yrs not going for screening colonoscopy or FIT (Faecal Immunochemcial Test)

Computed Tomography (CT) Colonography

Once every 5 years if the initial screening study with CT colonography is negative. Otherwise, as advised by your doctor.

2

Liver cancer/ Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

  • Hepatitis B carrier

  • Individuals with liver cirrhosis

Alpha-FoetoProtein (AFP)

Once a year

Ultrasound HepatobiliarySystem

Once a year

3

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

Individuals with a strong family history of NPC

Nasoscopy

As advised by your doctor.

Tumor marker for NPC

4

Prostate cancer

  • Men aged 50-75 yrs

  • Men with a strong family history of prostate cancer

Prostate-Specific Antigen(PSA)

Once a year or as advised by your doctor.

5

Breast cancer

BRCA carriers

Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) Breast

Once a year

Heart and Vascular Disease

6

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

Men aged 65 to 75 who have ever smoked

Abdominal Ultrasonography

As advised by your doctor.

7

Cerebral aneurysm

  • Individuals with personal or strong family history of bleeding from a cerebral aneurysm

  • Individuals with polycystic kidney disease

Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) / Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) brain

As advised by your doctor.

8

Coronary heart disease

Individuals with intermediate coronary heart disease risk

Apolipoprotein A

As advised by your doctor.

CT Coronary Calcium Score

Electrocardiography (ECG)

High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs CRP)

Treadmill Stress Test

9

Peripheral vascular disease

  • Individuals with diabetes

  • Individual aged 50-70 yrs and is a smoker or with both hypertension and hyperlipidaemia

Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)

As advised by your doctor.

Infectious Disease

10

Hepatitis B infection

Immigrants from countries where Hepatitis B is common

Hepatitis B screen

As advised by your doctor.

11

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Individuals who practise high risk sexual behaviour

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screen

As advised by your doctor.

12

Intestinal parasitic infection

  • Immigrants from countries where disease is common

  • Asymptomatic travellers on prolonged stay in countries where disease is common

Stool for ova, cyst and parasites

As advised by your doctor.

13

Syphilis

Individuals who practise high risk sexual behaviour

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)

 

As advised by your doctor.

14

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Close contacts of patients with TB

  • Foreigners from countries with high disease prevalence

Chest X-ray (CXR)

As advised by your doctor.

Metabolic, Nutritional, Endocrine and Rheumatology Conditions

15

Diabetic albuminuria/ albuminuria/ nephropathy

Individuals with diabetes

Urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio

Once a year

For those with type 1 diabetes, screening should begin 5 years after diagnosis.

Those with type 2 diabetes, screening should begin at diagnosis.

16

Kidney disorder/ dysfunction

  • Individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure or heart disease or cardiovascular disease

  • Smokers aged 50 yrs and above

  • Individuals with family history of end-stage renal failure

Urine analysis

As advised by your doctor.

 

Kidney function test/Renalpanel

Once a year

17

Osteoporosis

Individuals with high osteoporosis risk

Bone mineral density scan (BMD)

As advised by your doctor.

18

Thyroid disorder

  • Obese individuals

  • Individuals with autoimmune disease

Thyroid function test (TFT)

As advised by your doctor.

Vision and Hearing Disorders

19

Diabetic retinopathy

Individuals with diabetes

Retinal Fundal Photography

Once a year or more frequently as advised by the doctor.

For those with type 1 diabetes, screening should begin 3-5 years after diagnosis.

Those with type 2 diabetes, screening should begin at diagnosis.

20

Hearing loss/Deafness in adults

Individuals exposed to excessive noise

Audiometry

Once a year

Congenital and Paediatric Conditions

21

Thalassemia

  • Individuals with family history of disease

Thalassemia screen

As advised by your doctor.

For Women (excluding pregnant women)

S/N

To screen for 

Who should be screened? 

Screening test 

Screening frequency

Cancer

1

Breast cancer

BRCA carriers, women at high genetic risk for breast cancer

Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) Breast

Once a year

2

Colorectal cancer

Individuals above 50 yrs not going for screening colonoscopy or FIT (Faecal Immunochemcial Test)

Computed Tomography (CT) Colonography

Once every 5 years if the initial screening study with CT colonography is negative. Otherwise, as advised by your doctor.

3

Liver cancer/ Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

  • Hepatitis B carrier

  • Individuals with liver cirrhosis

Alpha-FoetoProtein (AFP)

Once a year

Ultrasound HepatobiliarySystem

Once a year

4

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

Individuals with a strong family history of NPC

Nasoscopy

As advised by your doctor.

Tumor marker for NPC

5

Ovarian cancer

BRCA carriers women at high risk of BRCA mutation

Transvaginal Ultrasound

As advised by your doctor.

Heart and Vascular Disease

6

Cerebral aneurysm

  • Individuals with a personal or strong family history of bleeding from a cerebral aneurysm

  • Individuals with polycystic kidney disease

Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) / Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) brain

As advised by your doctor.

7

Coronary heart disease

Individuals with intermediate coronary heart disease risk

Apolipoprotein A

As advised by your doctor.

CT Coronary Calcium Score

Electrocardiography (ECG)

High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs CRP) 

Treadmill Stress Test

8

Peripheral vascular disease

  • Individuals with diabetes

  • Individual aged 50-70 yrs and is a smoker or with both hypertensionand hyperlipidaemia

Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)

As advised by your doctor.

Infectious Disease

9

Hepatitis B infection

Immigrants from countries where Hepatitis B is common

Hepatitis B screen

 

As advised by your doctor.

10

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Individuals who practise high risk sexual behaviour

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screen

As advised by your doctor.

11

Intestinal parasitic infection

  • Immigrants from countries where disease is common

  • Asymptomatic travelers on prolonged stay in countries where disease is common.

Stool for ova, cyst and parasites

As advised by your doctor.

12

Syphilis

Individuals who practice high risk sexual behaviour

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)

 

As advised by your doctor.

13

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Close contacts of patients with TB

  • Foreigners from countries with high disease prevalence

Chest X-ray (CXR)

As advised by your doctor.

Metabolic, Nutritional, Endocrine and Rheumatology Conditions

14

Anaemia (Iron deficiency anaemia)

Non-pregnant women of childbearing age

Full Blood Count (FBC)

For non-pregnant
women of child-bearing age: Once before pregnancy.

15

Diabetic microalbuminuria/ albuminuria/ nephropathy

Individuals with diabetes

Urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio

Once a year

For those with type 1 diatebes, screening should begin 5 years after diagnosis.

Those with type 2 diatebes, screening should begin at diagnosis.

16

Kidney disorder/ dysfunction

  • Individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure or cardiovasculardisease

  • Smokers aged 50 yrs and above

  • Individuals with family history of end-stage renal failure

Urine analysis

As advised by your doctor.

Kidney function test/Renalpanel

Once a year

17

Osteoporosis

Individuals with high osteoporosis risk, e.g. high osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) score

Bone mineral density scan (BMD)

As advised by your doctor.

18

Thyroid disorder

  • Obese individuals

  • Individuals with autoimmune disease

Thyroid function test (TFT)

As advised by your doctor.

Vision and Hearing Disorders

19

Diabetic retinopathy

Individuals with diabetes

Retinal Fundal Photography

Once a year or more frequently as advised by the doctor.

For those with type 1 diabetes, screening should begin 5 years after diagnosis.

Those with type 2 diabetes, screening should begin at diagnosis.

20

Hearing loss/Deafness in adults

Individuals exposed to excessive noise

Audiometry

Once an year

Congenital and Paediatric Conditions

21

Thalassemia

  • Individuals with family history of disease

Thalassemia screen

As advised by your doctor.