The prostate is a plum-sized gland located in front of the rectum and just below your bladder, where urine is stored. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, which is the canal through which urine passes out of your body. The urethra also secretes fluid that forms part of semen.
The prostate gland often enlarges with age. This condition is known as Benign Prostatic Enlargement (BPE), Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. As the prostate enlarges, its capsule (layer of tissue surrounding it) stops it from expanding outwards. This causes the prostate gland to press inwards against the urethra like a clamp on a garden hose.
As a result, the bladder wall thickens and the bladder contracts even with small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination. Eventually, the bladder weakens and loses the ability to empty itself, resulting in residual urine left in the bladder.